Fat is an important energy source; however, it plays a secondary role as an energy substrate, particularly during exercise that exceeds moderate intensity. For example, one of the fundamental concepts of bioenergetics illustrates this point through the axiom “fat burns in a carbohydrate flame;” clearly emphasizing the important role of CHO in energy metabolism. In the absence of adequate CHO availability, as might occur during starvation, near the end of a long endurance event or CHO-restricting diet, the body must turn to an alternate source to maintain energy for all tissues. Under normal dietary conditions there is a steady supply of glucose which the body readily uses as a primary fuel.
With all the options, most of you ought to be able to mix and match your way to 8 to 10 grams of fiber at breakfast without much hassle at all. That's oatmeal with flaxseeds and almonds, a vegetable frittata with some berries on the side or whole-grain toast with natural peanut butter. And just so you know we're flexible: There's no rule against having any of these fiber-rich goodies for lunch!
But traditional cereals contain simple carbohydrates, which are the enemy of low carb dieters. Before you despair, know that there are plenty of low carb cereals you can find in your grocery store; they are made with soy and whole grains, which provide a lot of fiber, and are low in sugar. Here are five of the best low carb cereal brands to look for next time you go shopping.

Protein: When people first reduce carbohydrates in their diets, it doesn't seem as though the amount of protein they eat is as important to ketosis as it often becomes later on. For example, people on the Atkins diet often eat fairly large amounts of protein in the early stages and remain in ketosis. However, over time, some (perhaps most) people need to be more careful about the amount of protein they eat as (anecdotally) the bodies of many people seem to "get better" at converting protein into glucose (gluconeogenesis). At that point, each individual needs to experiment to see if too much protein is throwing them out of ketosis and adjust as necessary.
GRAINS: A classic breakfast choice is some kind of whole grain. That's wholegrain—refined grains have had most of the fiber and other nutrients milled out of them, leaving a refined carbohydrate that bears a striking nutritional resemblance to sugar (although it's usually fortified with small amounts of iron, B vitamins and folate). Because you can subtract the grams of fiber (they have no significant impact on blood sugar) from grams of total carbs in whole grains, the high fiber content lowers the net carb content significantly.
Emmy-award nominated screenwriter Brynne Chandler is a single mother of three who divides her time between professional research and varied cooking, fitness and home & gardening enterprises. A running enthusiast who regularly participates in San Francisco's Bay to Breakers run, Chandler works as an independent caterer, preparing healthy, nutritious meals for Phoenix area residents. Her work has appeared in The Houston Chronicle and San Francisco Chronicle, among other places. She is hard at work on her first cookbook which combines simple, fresh recipes with science-based herbal medicine.
Another new study presented at the European Society of Cardiology backs up this research and appeared with the title: “Low carbohydrate diets are unsafe and should be avoided.” Study author, Professor Maciej Banach, stated: “We found that people who consumed a low carbohydrate diet were at greater risk of premature death. Risks were also increased for individual causes of death including coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. These diets should be avoided.”
Almond flour is a gluten-free nut flour that should consist of nothing but ground blanched almonds. This means that you can make your own at home, from scratch, by grinding whole blanched almonds to a fine meal (unless you just want to buy it). Using a coffee or spice grinder usually works best. Be careful not to grind them for too long or the nuts will release their fat and you´ll end up with almond butter, which is a great tasting nut butter but perhaps not what you were going for when making almond flour.
I had pasta last night, and I feel guilty that I cheated. This recipe is that good. I followed your directions exactly, including simmering the noodles in some sauce for a few minutes. What size pan did you use? It was hard for me to estimate and I ended up throwing away some egg mixture. Putting pan sizes in all your wonderful recipes would be helpful. Keep up the good work. You are my low-carb, go-to guru.
My children are on a low carb diet but have the occasional treat with Dad and friends with parties etc. I’m undecided on keto for children unless the child wasn’t having success losing weight on a low carb diet. I think it would be best to speak to his pediatrician if he does have a lot of weight to lose. I can say being on keto does help with sugar and carb cravings more than anything I’ve ever tried. My friend Maria from Mariabodymindhealth.com has her children on keto 100% of the time.
Love your blog and recipes, thank you! Congratulations on doing keto – I’ve been sugar, dairy, grain and pretty much all carb free for over a year keeping my carbs to under 30 grams per day. My question is about coffee…did you give it up? I was drinking way too much coffee with heavy cream so I finally gave that up for Califia almond/coconut creamer sugar free of course! Did you give up coffee during the keto trial?
This was very good general. I would love to see a menu plan of what you actually ate between low crab(like a sample day) and Keto. I also found it encouraging that it took you moths to be keto adapted even though you were already doing low carb. Is this because you found it hard to cut out the carbs? I have been trying to do Keto for weight loss and clear mind and focus since the end of December. I did well the first week, then had a bad day and got back to it.. I have a good week and then a bad day and that’s been my cycle for 3 months. SO I have lost some weight 12lbs, but I really need to lose more. Nothing else worked for me to lose weight, My body really likes to hold onto its fat, most likely due to that it doesn’t process stress well and I have a high stress lifestyle. Any suggestions would be much appreciated. Thank you, I love your blog.
So let’s talk about vital wheat gluten. Yes, it is wheat, and yes in high amounts it has carbs – although not as many as flour. In this tiny amount it adds no carbs to the recipe yet helps the noodles to not only hold together but also to have that tender chewy texture we all love. This should NOT be served to anyone with a gluten intolerance or allergy but it’s just fine for low carb lifestyles.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (LCKD) in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes over 16 weeks. Specifically, we wanted to learn the diet's effects on glycemia and diabetes medication use in outpatients who prepared (or bought) their own meals. In a previous article, we reported the results observed in 7 individuals [10]; this report includes data from those 7 individuals along with data from additional participants enrolled subsequently.
The classic ketogenic diet is not a balanced diet and only contains tiny portions of fresh fruit and vegetables, fortified cereals, and calcium-rich foods. In particular, the B vitamins, calcium, and vitamin D must be artificially supplemented. This is achieved by taking two sugar-free supplements designed for the patient's age: a multivitamin with minerals and calcium with vitamin D.[18] A typical day of food for a child on a 4:1 ratio, 1,500 kcal (6,300 kJ) ketogenic diet comprises three small meals and three small snacks:[28]
If you are trying to get the kids to eat healthier and not rely on sugary cereals you might find this keto one will win them over. It has a great texture from the nuts and seeds and has a sweet warming flavor from the cinnamon and sweetener. This cereal is great with your choice of milk or can be made a bit more filling by adding in some fresh berries.
I’m new to this type of baking. My husband is borderline diabetic, so I decided to try more low card recipes, by eliminating wheat flours from our diet. I’ve tried some other bread recipes that didn’t deliver the expected results, but this one did. And its so simple to make. My husband remarked that the texture reminded him of rye bread, and asked it there was something we could add to give it more of a rye bread flavor. I did a little research and discovered that caraway seeds would do the trick. I partially ground about 2 teaspoons and soaked in warm water for a few minutes, then drained before adding it to the batter. It worked!
I’m excited to try these 🙂 Love pasta but am low carb, so these look perfect. I have a suggestion for cutting – try using an herb cutting wheel (herb mincer), this would give long, thin pieces and uniform too. I also have a question – can I use a hand or stick blender? I have a Vitamix but hate that I always have to leave some bits behind b/c I can’t get it all out from the bottom (but I see the batter is thin, so this might not be a problem?)
The first modern study of fasting as a treatment for epilepsy was in France in 1911.[12] Twenty epilepsy patients of all ages were "detoxified" by consuming a low-calorie vegetarian diet, combined with periods of fasting and purging. Two benefited enormously, but most failed to maintain compliance with the imposed restrictions. The diet improved the patients' mental capabilities, in contrast to their medication, potassium bromide, which dulled the mind.[13]
Consequently, when you begin a ketogenic diet, it acts as a metabolic stressor on the body. In the process of relearning how to burn fat for energy, a mild metabolic stress is inflicted upon your mitochondria. This stress is just powerful enough to kill off old and dysfunctional mitochondria which stimulates the growth of new and more powerful mitochondria (5). The end result is more energy and a higher level of vitality.
Katie, Almond flour is probably the easiest keto-friendly flour for a new cook to work with. It’s very versatile and can be used in recipes for cookies, muffins, breads, scones, cakes, etc. (Of course the ratio of almond flour to other ingredients changes based on what you’re making.) But with that being said, because almond flour doesn’t have gluten, it can be difficult to simulate the soft crumb of regular baked goods unless you combine almond flour with another keto-friendly flour and/or a binding agent. This is why a lot of our recipes call for more than one type of flour. I hope this helps! If you’re looking for a certain recipe in particular please let us know and we’ll try to point you in the right direction!

In 1921, Rollin Turner Woodyatt reviewed the research on diet and diabetes. He reported that three water-soluble compounds, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and acetone (known collectively as ketone bodies), were produced by the liver in otherwise healthy people when they were starved or if they consumed a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet.[10] Dr. Russell Morse Wilder, at the Mayo Clinic, built on this research and coined the term "ketogenic diet" to describe a diet that produced a high level of ketone bodies in the blood (ketonemia) through an excess of fat and lack of carbohydrate. Wilder hoped to obtain the benefits of fasting in a dietary therapy that could be maintained indefinitely. His trial on a few epilepsy patients in 1921 was the first use of the ketogenic diet as a treatment for epilepsy.[10]
Congratulations on your keto success! i started keto on September 2, 2017 after reaching my highest weight ever of 192. As of this morning, I’ve lost 50 pounds, weighing 142. I’ve struggled with weight my entire life, & never thought I would be this size or weigh this little. I have never felt better! My hormones are stabilized (I’m 60, so I have the perimenopausal thing going on); my acid reflux is almost completely gone; my arthritis symptoms are gone; I’m sleeping MUCH better; and my skin isn’t dry! I started keto for weight loss, but now I know the weight loss is a perk. I’m never “hangry” and have been able to incorporate 24 – 48 hour fasting into my weekly regime with no difficulty. I do intermittent fasting every day, eating all my food in 8 – 12 hours daily. My “food obsession” is gone; yet, I love eating more than I ever did pre-keto! I eat only when I’m hungry (not by a clock) and stop when I’m satisfied. I agree that a lot of docs still are not on board with keto. A great book to understand keto from a medical perspective is Jimmy Moore’s Keto Clarity. I think the reason some people don’t do well on keto is they have a difficult time embracing the idea of eating “this much fat”. Happily, I’m an “all or nothing” person, so when I started keto, I jumped in – and found that the fat fills me up faster & keeps me full longer so I don’t have cravings. When I do want something sweet, I make a keto treat – but it’s not every day or even every week. Most of the time, I’m super happy on my bacon, sour cream, cream cheese,and fattier meats! I am keto for life – there is no reason to go back to eating any other way!
Must say, however, that the shape of choice (for most pasta-like results) are the cavatelli. Both because the ridges help the sauce to stick better, and for the resulting texture and mouthfeel. Though you’ll need to procure a (9 bucks!) cavatelli & gnocchi board. Cavatelli are very similar to gnocchi in shape (which you can make too!), though slightly thinner and with more of a bite. 
Using almond instead of wheat-based flour keeps these breakfast beauties lower in carbs without sacrificing the tiniest bit of taste. Whip up the batter with a blender for a quicker breakfast, or use a bowl and whisk—either option yields delicious results. Add berries for some color and a fruity zing. Oh, and trust us one this one—make an extra batch to freeze for a busy morning.
Most low-carb diet authors don't recommend bothering with it. Even many of those who think a ketogenic diet is a good thing just assume that a very-low-carbohydrate diet (under about 50 net grams of carbohydrate) is ketogenic. On the other hand, many people have found that monitoring their ketones, at least for a while, provides valuable information.
Look, the good doctor is right – he only forgot to stress “portion control” which is why many fanatical dieters are so kee-jerk reactive to any discussion – odds are you over ate like a hog before your keto diet, and are weak and insecure in your diet plans. Eat EVERYTHING in small amounts, and you will live long and prosper. The only thing to avoid are processed foods. Cook your meals from scratch using quality ingredients.
The ketogenic diet is a medical nutrition therapy that involves participants from various disciplines. Team members include a registered paediatric dietitian who coordinates the diet programme; a paediatric neurologist who is experienced in offering the ketogenic diet; and a registered nurse who is familiar with childhood epilepsy. Additional help may come from a medical social worker who works with the family and a pharmacist who can advise on the carbohydrate content of medicines. Lastly, the parents and other caregivers must be educated in many aspects of the diet for it to be safely implemented.[5]
Made this today for my husband. It is delicious. I used coconut oil (the hard kind) and added 1 tsp of cinnamon. Only problem is that it did not crisp up. It’s more “bendy” than crispy. Not dry enough. Definitely baked it long enough. Should I use less coconut oil next time. Any ideas. Thanks. I will definitely make again because the taste is awesome.
You’re transitioning. Your body is equipped to process a high intake of carbs and a lower intake of fat. Your body needs to create enzymes to be able to do this. In the transitional period, the brain may run low on energy which can lead to grogginess, nausea, and headaches. If you’re having a large problem with this, you can choose to reduce carb intake gradually.
Sunflower seed meal and pumpkin seed meal are ideal options for those who are allergic to any of the nut flours we mentioned above. These seed flours are high in vitamins and minerals such as vitamin E, copper, thiamine, selenium, and phosphorus, and relatively low in net carbs (less than five net carbs in every 1-ounce serving), making them a healthy keto-friendly option.
Weight loss is a common target for disease management, as well as health promotion. The prevalence of obesity remains high among U.S. adults (36.5%) (5), as well as children and adolescents (17%) (6). Importantly, obesity is a significant contributor to increased morbidity and mortality, as well as being a primary driver of increasing medical expenses (4). Despite much effort and cost, there has been little success on this front and obesity remains a public health crisis.

Soba noodles: In many Japanese dishes, fiber-rich soba noodles are the star player. While they’re similar in texture to traditional long noodles, their nutty flavor makes them a great fit for savory and slightly sweeter dishes. At 24g of carbs per cup, they’re a higher-carb option than veggies, but still lower in carbs than a cup of regular spaghetti which has around 43g of carbs.

Hi!! I have been following you since I started Keto…. Dec 26, 2017. I have lost 41 lbs since then and in the last 3 weeks I can not seem to get the scale to move nor are the inches changing… I am 58 yrs old and lightly active (I work in retail and am on my feet all day.. 10 hrs per day… operating register, stocking soda, candy… putting grocery truck away) I have been running my macros at 16 carbs (I do not do net) fat 97gm and protein is 78gms which is for my calorie intake of 1258 5/70/25…. I am at a total loss as to what steps I need to take…but for the most part I generally only get in 700-900 calories per day… I am just not hungry. Days off are nightmares…. it seems all I want to do is eat… I have NO “bad” foods in my house… I mostly eat veggies on my days off… asparagus, broccoli, zucchini, cabbage, radishes cooked in an oil of some sort olive, avocado, sesame……. I dearly love tomatoes but eat them sparingly.
Carbohydrates are used to make glycogen, which is required for muscle function. The difference between this and common meal plans is the amount of carb intake is limited to enough for the glycogen production of a normal person. Not every carbohydrate is created equal. Sugar alcohols don’t affect most people’s blood sugar levels. Nor does most fiber. A keto eater is interested in net carbs, figured by total carbohydrate minus fiber minus sugar alcohols. 

Just wanted to post in case others share my initial trepidation about trying the recipe. I avoid anything super high maintenance, but was intrigued by the positive reviews, so I gave it a try. Success! I did everything the recipe said not to (used a silicone pan and cheap almond flour that was definitely not ultra fine, and I have no idea how old my baking powder is), and they still turned out great! I did liberally butter the silicone pan to make sure I could get the donuts out and also added a smidge of xanthan gum to help hold them together.


Hi Krystal, I haven’t tried a sweet version of this bread. Honey wouldn’t be low carb, so just keep that in mind. Adding a sweetener should work, but other ingredients would need to be adjusted. You may need a little more of the wet ingredients if using a granulated sweetener, or a little more almond flour if using a liquid sweetener. If you try adding something, let me know how it turned out for you!

It took me a long time to find you but your website has been a huge blessing. My husband is a diabetic and I didn’t know what to do to handle this. He also loves desserts which was a real challenge. I could find lots of paleo sites but they all use honey or maple syrup which is still sugar and not good for a diabetic. So here you are and everything you do is perfect for us. I think you are a genius. And you have sooooo enhanced my life. Thank you so much for being here and sharing. Please don’t ever go away!

Taste is quite eggy; I have issues with the smell and taste of eggs (I usually hurl immediately). I was hoping this would be more noodle than egg 🙁 This being said; I simmered it in a broth (2 pkgs beef OXO, 2 tsps garlic powder, 1/2 tsp pepper; 1/8 tsp sirracha; 2 tsps oregano and about 2 a cup and half of water). Then I added some shaved beef that I had fried with orions and garlic – Like a makeshift PHO; Its tastes pretty amazing; but I can still only eat it in little bis because the noodles are still quite eggy :/ I would NOT make this recipe without a silicone mat and don’t spread the mixture all the way to the edges if the mat fits your Ian exactly or it will run under it as the mixture is VERY thin, definetly not the traditional sense of “batter”. I cooked for exactly 5 mins, it will look like it isn’t done, but trust the recepie, it is done. I used a spatula to slowly peel it off piece by piece; there was quite a bit of breakage, so don’t expect to get long noodles, but if you are careful you can definetly get a decent noodle. Overall a good recipe, just not one for someone who doesn’t particularly like eggs.
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My Husband and I started doing Keto July 2018. We got over weight after we got out of the Marine Corps. It has been hard to workout because I became disabled, but my diet was not good. After our friend Amber recommended your site and support group, we found a lot of helpful information to get us started on a successful journey. So far it’s been one month and we have lost 18 pounds each!
"Avoid inflammatory oils like safflower, sunflower, corn, or soybean oils and opt for whole food cereal or granolas with limited ingredients, which tend to be made from nuts, seeds and occasionally whole oats or puffed rice," says Kelly LeVeque, RD, a celebrity nutritionist who works with Jennifer Garner and Jessica Alba, and author of Body Love. One of her faves: This grain-free granola from Thrive Market, which has a blissfully short ingredient list but tons of flavor.

Most low-carb diet authors don't recommend bothering with it. Even many of those who think a ketogenic diet is a good thing just assume that a very-low-carbohydrate diet (under about 50 net grams of carbohydrate) is ketogenic. On the other hand, many people have found that monitoring their ketones, at least for a while, provides valuable information.
Walnut flour can be used for all low-carbohydrate baking needs and it can be swapped out for other grains in your diet. You can make pancakes, breads, muffins, cakes, you name it! Walnut flour is delicious, so give it a try. There are many brands, but we’ve linked you to one of the best-sellers or top choices on Amazon above. The brand listed is fine ground in California, USA.
Over the long-term the KD poses possible risks as well, although the evidence remains unclear on this topic. Consumption of a high fat diet, particularly saturated fat, is associated with increased cardiovascular risk (23) and consumption of saturated fat has been shown to acutely induce insulin resistance and raise blood triglyceride levels (12). Nevertheless, many KD studies have documented improvements in markers of cardiovascular risk, including improvements in vascular function (24) reduction in inflammatory markers (10), and other markers of cardiovascular health (13,20). Methodological issues, such as clear definitions of dietary interventions, may play a significant role in obscuring the underlying principles, however, it is clear that more targeted research is warranted.
In addition, not all carbs come in the form of white bread, fluffy pizza crusts, and other wheat products. Harvard explains that beans and fruit are also sources of good carbohydrates, so keep that in mind before you decide to completely carve out carbs from your diet. With that in mind, we've rounded up some of the best pasta swaps that don't taste like cardboard—in fact, some even taste just as delicious (or better) than the real thing.
Switching to a low-carbohydrate diet doesn't necessarily require sacrificing flavorful Italian meals for bland alternatives. We already know that there are a ton of mouthwatering recipes that use zucchini, squash, and other delicious veggies in place of the traditional flour-made staple. If, however, you don't have the time to chop and spiralize your main ingredients, fear not: There's a low-carb pasta substitute for every type of dish.
While there are many almond-flour pastas advertised as low carb, be sure to triple-check the label. Many brands contain more carbohydrates than you’d believe. Al Dente Carba Nada contains over 24 grams of total carbohydrates, or 17 grams net carbs[*]. Fiber Gourmet, also advertised as low carb, contains over 40 grams of total carbohydrates per serving and 3 grams of sugar[*].
People claiming huge benefits of these supplements – despite the lack of solid scientific support – may sometimes have a financial reason to believe in the supplements. Some of these products are sold under a multi-level marketing arrangement, where sales people are paid based on commission. For example, the company Prüvit sells drinkable ketones, called KETO//OS with a multi-level marketing structure.

As I mentioned already, the body will burn sugar for energy before it burns fat. Most people will do very well in the range of 0.8-1.2 grams of protein per KG of bodyweight they have. To convert your bodyweight into KG, simply take your weight in pounds and divide it by 2.2. This number can then be multiplied by 0.8 and 1.2 to determine your protein range.

Hi Lee, A blender might also work, if it’s powerful enough to chop up nuts. You’ll still want to use a pulse-stop-pulse method, and may need to stir between pulses. Otherwise, you can also try chopping up the nuts and seeds before mixing with the other ingredients. If you go that route, the resulting granola texture will be a little different compared to a food processor. I used a food processor partly because it makes both prep time and cleanup a lot faster, but also because that way you get a mix of larger chopped nuts and finer powder. I hope one of the other methods works out for you!
Make things yourself. While it’s extremely convenient to buy most things pre-made or pre-cooked, it always adds to the price per pound on items. Try prepping veggies ahead of time instead of buying pre-cut ones. Try making your stew meat from a chuck roast. Or, simply try to make your mayo and salad dressings at home. The simplest of things can work to cut down on your overall grocery shopping.
From the study itself: “Mortality increased when carbohydrates were exchanged for animal-derived fat or protein and mortality decreased when the substitutions were plant-based … Low carbohydrate dietary patterns favouring animal-derived protein and fat sources, from sources such as lamb, beef, pork, and chicken, were associated with higher mortality, whereas those that favoured plant-derived protein and fat intake, from sources such as vegetables, nuts, peanut butter, and whole-grain breads, were associated with lower mortality, suggesting that the source of food notably modifies the association between carbohydrate intake and mortality.”
If you’re someone who loves to bake, you may think that starting a low carb diet means your favorite pastime is now off-limits. You can’t have flour and you can’t have sugar, so you can’t possibly make muffins and cakes and cookies, right? Well sure, if you want to define baking in those narrow, high carb terms, then I suppose you might be right. But if you’re ready to explore a whole new world of healthy low carb ingredients, stay with me.
Although many hypotheses have been put forward to explain how the ketogenic diet works, it remains a mystery. Disproven hypotheses include systemic acidosis (high levels of acid in the blood), electrolyte changes and hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose).[19] Although many biochemical changes are known to occur in the brain of a patient on the ketogenic diet, it is not known which of these has an anticonvulsant effect. The lack of understanding in this area is similar to the situation with many anticonvulsant drugs.[56]

Wilder's colleague, paediatrician Mynie Gustav Peterman, later formulated the classic diet, with a ratio of one gram of protein per kilogram of body weight in children, 10–15 g of carbohydrate per day, and the remainder of calories from fat. Peterman's work in the 1920s established the techniques for induction and maintenance of the diet. Peterman documented positive effects (improved alertness, behaviour, and sleep) and adverse effects (nausea and vomiting due to excess ketosis). The diet proved to be very successful in children: Peterman reported in 1925 that 95% of 37 young patients had improved seizure control on the diet and 60% became seizure-free. By 1930, the diet had also been studied in 100 teenagers and adults. Clifford Joseph Barborka, Sr., also from the Mayo Clinic, reported that 56% of those older patients improved on the diet and 12% became seizure-free. Although the adult results are similar to modern studies of children, they did not compare as well to contemporary studies. Barborka concluded that adults were least likely to benefit from the diet, and the use of the ketogenic diet in adults was not studied again until 1999.[10][14]
One of the central questions new adherents to the ketogenic diet must answer is whether or not they want to incorporate meat into their new diet. It is entirely possible to consume adequate levels of healthy fats whether you approach the diet as an omnivore or a vegetarian, so this decision is largely a personal one. However, if you choose to incorporate meat into your version of the ketogenic diet, it is crucial to ensure it is grass-fed, organic, and free of antibiotics. Furthermore, it is important to focus primarily on above-ground leafy vegetables, with meat serving as a side dish. An example of the perfect plate for a keto omnivore would be a sizeable portion of colorful, above-ground leafy vegetables covered with a healthy fat like olive oil, paired with a 3-5 oz serving of high-quality meat.
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