Physicians of ancient Greece treated diseases, including epilepsy, by altering their patients' diet. An early treatise in the Hippocratic Corpus, On the Sacred Disease, covers the disease; it dates from c. 400 BC. Its author argued against the prevailing view that epilepsy was supernatural in origin and cure, and proposed that dietary therapy had a rational and physical basis.[Note 3] In the same collection, the author of Epidemics describes the case of a man whose epilepsy is cured as quickly as it had appeared, through complete abstinence of food and drink.[Note 4] The royal physician Erasistratus declared, "One inclining to epilepsy should be made to fast without mercy and be put on short rations."[Note 5] Galen believed an "attenuating diet"[Note 6] might afford a cure in mild cases and be helpful in others.[11]
One downside to a ketogenic diet for weight loss is the difficulty maintaining it. “Studies show that weight loss results from being on a low-carb diet for more than 12 months tend to be the same as being on a normal, healthy diet,” says Mattinson. While you may be eating more satiating fats (like peanut butter, regular butter, or avocado), you’re also way more limited in what’s allowed on the diet, which can make everyday situations, like eating dinner with family or going out with friends, far more difficult. Because people often find it tough to sustain, it’s easy to rely on it as a short-term diet rather than a long-term lifestyle.
Hi Patti, It’s up to you if you want to go by weight or by volume. I include both for convenience. Some people don’t want to weigh all their food, though weighing is definitely more accurate. The volumes listed are based on how a food is normally served, so for iceberg lettuce it would be chopped, not minced. It sounds like you’re weighing anyway, so in this case just use the weights instead (they are shown in grams in parentheses next to the volumes). Hope this helps!
The only problem with using almond flour is that it is easy to overdo it. A cup of almond flour, for example,  consists of about 90 almonds — an amount that someone would rarely eat in one sitting. Although there are many health benefits that you can get from almonds, consuming high quantities of them will flood your body with inflammatory fats and phytates, which can worsen pre-existing health issues.

To replace 1 egg, mix 1 tbsp ground flax meal with 3 tbsp of water and allow it to swell. This can be used to replace the eggs but it will not give to properties that eggs do. Eggs help bind the ingredients, eggs help the baking become light, fluffy and rise. Eggs help emulsify the mixture. This formula is used in many vegan recipes or those who are allergic to eggs. If a recipe is heavily based on eggs, this substitution will not work.


This is a wealth of information. My husband and I are starting the keto diet tomorrow and I knew nothing about it. When I sat down to look up information about it, I found this. Thank you! This is everything I need to know in one place. We are not as healthy as we’d like to be and I am optimistic this will help us obtain our goals, along with an exercise plan.
With that in mind, would you recommend adding additional eggs and/or liquid to account for the absorption properties of the coconut flour? Perhaps eggs, egg whites, yogurt, or cream? The original recipe (which calls for two large eggs) has a great balance of crispy/chewy, so I will be trying to approximate that as closely as possible. I know it’s going to take some experimentation, just trying to make an educated guess on the starting point.
The ingredients above are usually quite expensive and might take some experimenting to get the hang of using. The low-carb or keto way of eating by no means require baking. If you don’t miss bread you certainly don’t need to replace it with a low-carb version but if you do miss bread or maybe just miss the baking itself the recipes below might be of interest to you.
If you’re someone who loves to bake, you may think that starting a low carb diet means your favorite pastime is now off-limits. You can’t have flour and you can’t have sugar, so you can’t possibly make muffins and cakes and cookies, right? Well sure, if you want to define baking in those narrow, high carb terms, then I suppose you might be right. But if you’re ready to explore a whole new world of healthy low carb ingredients, stay with me.
Ketosis means that your body is in a state where it doesn't have enough glucose available to use as energy, so it switches into a state where molecules called ketones are generated during fat metabolism. Ketones can be used for energy. A special property of ketones is that they can be used instead of glucose for most of the energy needed in the brain, where fatty acids can't be used. Also, some tissues of the body prefer using ketones, in that they will use them when available (for example, the heart muscle will use one ketone in particular for fuel when possible).
^ Freeman JM, Vining EP, Pillas DJ, Pyzik PL, Casey JC, Kelly LM. The efficacy of the ketogenic diet—1998: a prospective evaluation of intervention in 150 children. Pediatrics. 1998 Dec;102(6):1358–63. doi:10.1542/peds.102.6.1358. PMID 9832569. https://web.archive.org/web/20040629224858/http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/press/1998/DECEMBER/981207.HTM Lay summary]—JHMI Office of Communications and Public Affairs. Updated 7 December 1998. Cited 6 March 2008.
Moreover, two recent meta-analyses sought to investigate the effect of LCD on weight loss and cardiovascular disease risk. Sackner-Bernstein et al. (19) compared LCD to LF, among overweight and obese men and women. The authors found a significantly greater effect of weight loss in the LCD vs. the LF diets (-8.2 kg vs. -5.9 kg). The impact of diet on cardiovascular risk factors was split, with LCD resulting in significantly greater improvements in HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, while the LF resulted in significantly greater improvements in LDL and total cholesterol. From this the authors concluded that LCD were a viable alternative to LF diets and recommended “dietary recommendations for weight loss should be revisited to consider this additional evidence of the benefits of [low] CHO diets.” A significant limitation of this meta-analysis, however, was the authors’ definition of low-carbohydrate as a daily CHO consumption less than 120 grams. This value, while well below the standard recommendation of daily CHO consumption, still far exceeds the strict recommendation of KD (≤50 g/day), therefore the results of this meta-analysis must be approached with caution.
Moreover, two recent meta-analyses sought to investigate the effect of LCD on weight loss and cardiovascular disease risk. Sackner-Bernstein et al. (19) compared LCD to LF, among overweight and obese men and women. The authors found a significantly greater effect of weight loss in the LCD vs. the LF diets (-8.2 kg vs. -5.9 kg). The impact of diet on cardiovascular risk factors was split, with LCD resulting in significantly greater improvements in HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, while the LF resulted in significantly greater improvements in LDL and total cholesterol. From this the authors concluded that LCD were a viable alternative to LF diets and recommended “dietary recommendations for weight loss should be revisited to consider this additional evidence of the benefits of [low] CHO diets.” A significant limitation of this meta-analysis, however, was the authors’ definition of low-carbohydrate as a daily CHO consumption less than 120 grams. This value, while well below the standard recommendation of daily CHO consumption, still far exceeds the strict recommendation of KD (≤50 g/day), therefore the results of this meta-analysis must be approached with caution.
Hi Krystal, I haven’t tried a sweet version of this bread. Honey wouldn’t be low carb, so just keep that in mind. Adding a sweetener should work, but other ingredients would need to be adjusted. You may need a little more of the wet ingredients if using a granulated sweetener, or a little more almond flour if using a liquid sweetener. If you try adding something, let me know how it turned out for you!

If you’re following a low-carb diet, it’s tempting to limit breakfast cereal to a sprinkling on your Greek yogurt -- and with good reason. Because grains are carbohydrate-rich, there are few truly low-carb cereal options, and many boast upwards of 40 grams per serving. As of October 2015, the FDA hasn’t defined what “low-carb” means in terms of grams or percentage of calories. However, with a little detective work, you can find hot or cold cereals with 20 grams of carbohydrates or fewer per serving, which can fit into some lower-carb diets.
First, I want to thank you for all of your dedication and work in providing this site. The difficulty of maintaining a healthy weight is a big problem for so many people. My personal question & issue in staying on Keto is my craving for fresh fruit. This a.m I had a large fresh peach along with my “Bullet Proof” coffee. Have I now sabotaged today’s Keto eating?

Moreover, two recent meta-analyses sought to investigate the effect of LCD on weight loss and cardiovascular disease risk. Sackner-Bernstein et al. (19) compared LCD to LF, among overweight and obese men and women. The authors found a significantly greater effect of weight loss in the LCD vs. the LF diets (-8.2 kg vs. -5.9 kg). The impact of diet on cardiovascular risk factors was split, with LCD resulting in significantly greater improvements in HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, while the LF resulted in significantly greater improvements in LDL and total cholesterol. From this the authors concluded that LCD were a viable alternative to LF diets and recommended “dietary recommendations for weight loss should be revisited to consider this additional evidence of the benefits of [low] CHO diets.” A significant limitation of this meta-analysis, however, was the authors’ definition of low-carbohydrate as a daily CHO consumption less than 120 grams. This value, while well below the standard recommendation of daily CHO consumption, still far exceeds the strict recommendation of KD (≤50 g/day), therefore the results of this meta-analysis must be approached with caution.
I made these tonight for supper (just finished eating) and they were fantastic! I simmered them in a mixture of chicken broth, soy sauce, hot sauce, garlic, and ginger, then added some leftover cooked veggies and chicken for an eastern-inspired chicken noodle soup. I didn’t find the noodles eggy, but it wouldn’t bother me if they were because I love me some eggs. I didn’t change a thing in the recipe (yes, I actually DID use the vital wheat gluten! 😀 ). I know I’ll be making these on a regular basis now – I think I’ll be riffing on the classic tuna noodle casserole later this week. Thanks so much for a wonderful recipe!

Long-term compliance is low and can be a big issue with a ketogenic diet, but this is the case with any lifestyle change.  Even though the ketogenic diet is significantly superior in the induction of weight loss in otherwise healthy patients with obesity and the induced weight loss is rapid, intense, and sustained until at least 2 year, the understanding of the clinical impacts, safety, tolerability, efficacy, duration of treatment, and prognosis after discontinuation of the diet is challenging and requires further studies to understand the disease-specific mechanisms.
AMAZING! I just made this bread and I can’t believe how perfect it is! My fiance and I are doing low carb. Not quite keto but trying to stay close to that range of carb intake! Honestly I’ve just been saying I’m avoiding bread, potatoes, and pasta. Either way this bread rocks. The only substitutions I made to the recipe was plain seltzer water in place of the still water. Wanted to give the dough some extra lift. I also put some pumpkin and sunflower seeds on top to increase the heartiness. This bread came out rocking our socks off. Can’t wait to make some grilled cheese Sammie’s with it!
Once you start eating this very low amount of carbs, you’re body will become keto adapted. You are starving it from the carbs therefore it needs to find a source of fuel. When you’re in ketosis, your body will no longer have the carbs it once used to fuel your body. It will have to resort to using your own body fat for fuel. This is amazing because you’ll lose body fat if that was your goal and many other benefits you’ll see below.
The KD stands in stark contrast to current macronutrient recommendations for both health promotion, as well as enhancement of athletic performance (7,21). The KD is characterized by a macronutrient distribution ratio consisting of approximately 70 – 80% fat, 10 – 20% protein and <5% carbohydrate (CHO), with daily CHO intake limited to ≤50 grams. Two of the most prominent and vocal researchers of the KD, Jeff Volek, PhD and Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD, in their book The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Performance, recommend protein consumption of 0.6 – 1.0 grams per lb of lean body mass, a figure which almost perfectly matches the commonly recommended protein intake for athletes (i.e., 1.2 – 2.0 g/kg bodyweight) (21,26). With CHO intake radically restricted and protein within the commonly recommended range, fat becomes the primary macronutrient target for manipulation.
Sometimes a hot cereal hits the spot, but with around 28 grams per serving, regular oatmeal may overshoot your carb goals. However, sugar-free instant oatmeal has around 19 grams per packet, if you don’t mind the artificial sweeteners, and instant Cream of Wheat has 20 grams per packet, which is about ¾ cup prepared. Two other brands, Sensato and ProtiDIET, are sucralose-sweetened hot cereals. Sensato hot cereal comes in apple cinnamon, strawberrilicious and vanilla almond, with 12, 11 and 10 grams of carbs per ½ cup, respectively. ProtiDIET oatmeals have 6 carb grams per packet and come in cinnamon spice, apple cinnamon and maple brown sugar flavors.
The most commonly known and used nut flour is almond flour, and it is one of the most versatile low carb ingredients. Almond flour can differ greatly between brands in terms of how finely ground it is, so you need to know what to look for. The finest almond flours are made from blanched almonds and have no darker specks of skin. Almond “meal” is often not nearly so finely ground and may or may not contain the husks of the almonds. The finer the grind of the almond flour, the finer the consistency of your baked goods. However, more coarsely ground meals are often less expensive and are still useful in things that don’t require a fine texture, such as muffins.
If you're healthy and eating a balanced diet, your body controls how much fat it burns, and you don't normally make or use ketones. But when you cut way back on your calories or carbs, your body will switch to ketosis for energy. It can also happen after exercising for a long time and during pregnancy. For people with uncontrolled diabetes, ketosis is a sign of not using enough insulin.

Drink lots of water. This is especially crucial on a low carb or keto diet. Why? When you eat carbohydrates, your body stores the extra as glycogen in the liver, where they are bound to water molecules. Eating low carb depletes this glycogen, which allows you to burn fat – but it also means you are storing less water, making it easier to get dehydrated. Instead of the traditional recommendation of 8 cups of water per day, aim for 16 cups when following a low carb lifestyle.


In fact, once all our our reserved glucose/glycogen runs out after several days on a low-carb, keto diet, our bodies create compounds called ketone bodies (or ketones) from our own stored body fat, as well as from fats in our diet. In addition, researchers have discovered that ketones contain main benefits, such as fat loss, suppressing our appetites, boosting mental clarity and lowering the risk for a number of chronic diseases.
Hi Vivian – I am 60 yo and researching Keto and would love more information from you since we are same age. What is TDEE? What fat sources do you use and how much daily? What are some meals you make regularly and what does a day of food look like? What is the easiest/best way to count carbs getting started? If you and Brenda are ok with you giving me your email I would love to learn more from you! I just need some help getting started. Brenda – thank you for all your information and recipes!
Regular flour is made from wheat and grains, both of which have high amounts of carbohydrates. To make a similar flour with fewer carbohydrates, different sources — sources considered low-carb — are used. These sources typically include nuts such as almonds and walnuts, seeds such as flax seed, and legumes such as peanuts and soy. Wheat also can be used as low-carb flour, but only if the wheat section containing the protein is used and nothing else.
At 64 I had over 125 lbs to lose. I started a Keto Diet 7 months ago and have lost 75lbs. I have a number of autominnune issues and my health was so bad I was almost bedridden. I now do a water workout twice a week and yoga. I can see a low carb diet being my way of life after I get down to my goal weight. I feel so much better and I agree I am never hungry. I recommend the Bullet Proof Coffee for Kate. Coffee with cream, coconut butter and butter, blend. Adds fat to your diet and keeps you full.
I love this Easy Low Carb Bread Recipe – Almond Flour Bread! I made it this morning for the first time and it turned out great – taste really good. I didn’t have the Psyllium husk powder so I used Golden Flaxseed Meal and I doubled the recipe for a thicker loaf. My question is – does this need to be refrigerated and if not how long does it keep if not refrigerated.
Looking for that hearty crunch that’s packed full of flavor? Look no more. Instead of cracking open a box of Ritz or Cheez-Its, go ahead and make your own! You can make crackers from anything including flaxseed meal (featured in The RULED Book), chia seeds, or even almond flour to make your own homemade crunchy snacks with a delicious flavor of your own.

You can substitute half of the spelt flour for half of the flour called for in your recipe. This will help to keep the texture of bread when baking spelt bread. For total carbohydrates, it comes in at almost 27, with a net carbohydrate count of just under 22. The GI is getting up into the midrange, so this bread will start to raise blood sugars more at 55-67 than the previous four choices on our list.


First, I want to thank you for all of your dedication and work in providing this site. The difficulty of maintaining a healthy weight is a big problem for so many people. My personal question & issue in staying on Keto is my craving for fresh fruit. This a.m I had a large fresh peach along with my “Bullet Proof” coffee. Have I now sabotaged today’s Keto eating?

Health's contributing nutrition editor Cynthia Sass, RD, MPH, suggests looking for cereals that are made with nuts, seeds, coconut, a little bit of fruit, natural sweetener (think honey or agave syrup) instead of added sugar, and spices for flavor. Although many of these cereals may be gluten- or grain-free, you can also look for flaked whole grain varieties.
×